Bers, M. U. (2001). Identity Construction Environments: Developing Personal and Moral Values through the Design of a Virtual City. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, (4). 365. Retrieved from: http://egandb.uas.alaska.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsjsr&AN=edsjsr.1466738&site=eds-live
This study looked at Identity Construction learning environments where students create, reflect, and discuss identity and values within their microcommunity (with other students). The Zora program is a constructionist and collaborative program with many parallel features in Zora to the world in MinecraftEdu: personalized avatars or characters, teleporting to various places, construction of objects, building structures, a chat feature, and a virtual community. Students created a virtual microcommunity with objects to represent values and identity qualities, and used gathering spaces to discuss social issues. Students had several methods for interaction and constructed objects, ideas or concepts, and individual identities with the tools provided and embedded in the game design. For my research, the game design and research methods in addition to the students’ construction of identities, values, and community culture are most relevant to my research.
Obikwelu, C., Read, J., & Sim, G. (2013). Children’s Problem-Solving in Serious Games: The “Fine-Tuning System (FTS)” Elaborated. Electronic Journal Of E-Learning, 11(1), 49. Retrieved from: http://egandb.uas.alaska.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edb&AN=91531200&site=eds-live
This article discusses scaffolding in learning games and outlines a Fine-Tuning System (FTS) that can be used to manage scaffolding. Several elements of FTS and the concept of fading (scaffolding) are explained, as an approach rather than “blanket scaffolding” which is a support for learners as a group rather than individuals. Collaborative learning and peer tutoring are also recommended for use with FTS to ensure that each learner is supported (and then support is faded) at the appropriate rate for meaningful learning to occur. This is a summary article that will lead to research; for my research, I am interested in the concept of fading and how that will be implemented in the Survivalcraft experience by teachers and other game monitors.
Ramdass, D. d. (2012). The role of cognitive apprenticeship in learning science in a virtual world. Cultural Studies Of Science Education, 7(4), 985-992. Retrieved from: http://egandb.uas.alaska.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eft&AN=83879496&site=eds-live
The article makes a case for how learning science in virtual environments can provide learners with an idea of their possible selves; a suggestion of who they could be, which is also reinforced by other sociocultural factors. The cognitive apprenticeship model is explained as a framework for learning where students will progress in their zone of proximal development (ZPD). Scaffolding is discussed in the context of this apprenticeship between the learner (novice) and the teacher (expert). The apprenticeship model is applied in a virtual environment where the learner is able to test their abilities and gain an idea of their possible self or “personal educational identity.” Several studies are highlighted to demonstrate this apprenticeship model; for my research, I’m interested in this approach in MinecraftEdu with the possibility that the apprenticeship model exists between and among students rather than between the teacher and students.
Silseth, K. (2012). The Multivoicedness of Game Play: Exploring the Unfolding of a Student’s Learning Trajectory in a Gaming Context at School. International Journal Of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 7(1), 63-84. Retrieved from: http://egandb.uas.alaska.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eft&AN=72897353&site=eds-live
This article examines student interactions in a virtual gaming environment as a resource for understanding learning trajectories of students. Collaboration with other students and guidance from the teacher are factors that contribute to a student’s learning progress as well as context around the issue being studied within and outside of the classroom. Some background is laid for the significance of game-based learning but also points out the limitations of how game-based learning experiences are implemented in the classroom. There is also an explanation of student learning trajectories as ongoing connections between different areas of a student’s life (home, community, school, etc.). In the study, students played a computer game centered on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the data was collected about the group’s play but one student was tracked to demonstrate the learning trajectory in the context of the group and the game. For my research, I want to also consider how student interactions can be a resource but also give context to the material being studied in Survivorcraft as the students “live” the content in MinecraftEdu.
Vassileva, J. (2012). Motivating participation in social computing applications: a user modeling perspective. User Modeling & User-Adapted Interaction, 22(1/2), 177. doi:10.1007/s11257-011-9109-5. Retrieved from: http://egandb.uas.alaska.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2012-07498-008&site=eds-live
This paper examines several strategies for motivating users to participate in social online communities. The theories that explain the motivations of users is based on the use of rewards, social visualization, and reputation of and modeling by users in an open environment. Economic principles are applied to behavior and to give context for motivation of user; gamification and game design are also explained with relation to rewards, badges, and other incentives for participation. Other social behavior theories are highlighted to understand intrinsic motivation of users and how interactions with other users affects behavior and participation. The paper also examines incentive mechanisms in game design and the relationship to persuasion and personalization of social applications; these approaches do not just include the user but the community of users and an individual user’s own network (friends, family, co-workers, etc.). The discussion on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in game design and incentive mechanisms is relevant to the Survivalcraft experience and in cultivating meaningful student interactions.